Particle Detection B

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Put here all relevant material for students


To do

  • Decide on date(s) for exam
  • Feedback


Lecture format:

  • Divide each lecture in 2 (or 4) topics,
  • Ask the students to write lecture notes of 4-6 pages of a topic in groups of 3 students,
  • Derivation of equations in an appendix
  • A template of the lecture notes for each topic will be provided.


  • Your written lecture notes:
    • We will grade each set of lecture notes, and each group will get a total number of points that you divide between your group members. For example, we grade a set of lecture notes a 7, and the group receives a total of 21 points. If you decide that every group member did a fair share, you split the points equally. If you think one of your group members did put more effort into the notes, you come up with a different distribution (as long as the total remains 21).
    • There will be in total six sets of lecture notes. You do not have to write notes on the last lecture (Sensing & Control).
  • Each student will present a topic in 10 minutes (max) on May 26 & 27, both days from 9:00-10:30, followed by some questions. The topic will be assigned by us and you will get two questions on the topic you presented, and two questions on different topics
  • The notes will account for 60%, and the presentation & questions account for 40% of your grade. You will receive the average grade for your notes before the week of the presentation.


Groups of 3 students each to work on the assignments.

  • Group 1: Tjip, Leon, Alessia
  • Group 2: Marjolein, Barbara, Nigel, Niels
  • Group 3: Anastasis, João, Maricke

Here you can find the original notes and feedback on the notes: link

In the file below you can find the grades of the first 5 lectures



The order of the presentations will be the same as in the table (and the lectures).

Student-topic table


Lecture 1: Intro and Power Spectral Density

The Intro should contain (group 1):

The PSD chapter should contain (group 2 & 3)

Date to hand in assignment: Wednesday April 6

Lecture 2: Gaussian beam, Fabry-Perot cavities

The chapter ‘Gaussian beam’ should contain (group 3):

  • definition and features of Gaussian beams (slides 2-12)
  • Higher-order modes (slides 13-16)

The chapter ‘Optical cavities: fields amplitudes’ should contain (group 2):

  • definition of optical cavity (slide 17)
  • mathematical computations of the involved fields (slides 18-20, 22)

The chapter ‘Optical cavities: features and properties’ should contain (group 1):

  • cavity features: FSR, HWHM, Finesse, etc. (slides 21, 23-25)
  • mathematical computation of the stability criterion (slide 28)

All the material can be found in the SURFdrive folder at this |link

Date to hand in assignment: 15th April

Lecture 3: Interferometry (general, Michelson) and Interferometer for GW detection (power and signal recycling)

The chapter ‘Fabry-Perot cavity’ should contain (group 2):

  • Frequency response of the cavity (slides 2-6)

The chapter ‘Interferometry’ should contain (group 2):

  • Definition of interferometry (slide 7-8)

The chapter ‘Interferometers’ should contain (group 1):

  • Different topologies of interferometers (slides 9-14)
  • Details about Michelson interferometer (slide 15-19, 22)

The chapter ‘GW detectors’ should contain (group 3):

  • Topology, power recycling configuration, signal recycling configuration (slides 20-25)

All the material can be found in the SURFdrive folder at this link

Date to hand in assignment: April 21st

Lecture 4: Low frequency noise: seismic and Newtonian noise, suspension systems

The chapter ‘Seismic Noise’ should contain (group 3):

  • definition of Seismic noise
  • technique for the reduction of seismic noise (free-falling IFO, damped harmonic oscillator, vibration isolation)

The chapter ‘Suspension system of Virgo’ should contain (group 2):

  • description of the Virgo suspension system (Superattenuator, inverted pendulum, MultiSAS)

The chapter ‘Suspension system of LIGO’ should contain (group 1):

  • description of the LIGO suspension system

All the material can be found in the SURFdrive folder at this link

Date to hand in assignment: April 28th

Lecture 5: Low to mid frequency noise: suspension wire and mirror thermal noise, coatings, monolithic suspensions

All the groups should study all the topics until the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem.

The chapter ‘Thermal noise of pendulum’ should contain (group 1):

  • the simple harmonic oscillatior
  • the features of the pendulum
  • the pendulum thermal noise

The chapter ‘Thermal noise of substrate’ should contain (group 3):

  • the thermal noise of continuous system
  • different kinds of substrate thermal noise: Brownian thermal noise, thermo-elastic noise, thermo-refractive noise.

The chapter ‘Thermal noise of coating’ should contain (group 2):

  • the thermal noise of continuous system
  • why coating thermal noise is the dominant noise in the mirror thermal noise

All the material can be found in the SURFdrive folder at this link

Date to hand in assignment: May 8th

Lecture 6: Low to high frequency noise: quantum noise, laser (power), squeezing

All the groups should study the definition of Quantum Noise, Radiation Pressure Noise and Shot Noise.

The chapter ‘Quantum Noise ’ should contain (group 2):

  • Radiation pressure noise
  • Shot Noise
  • Standard Quantum Limit

The chapter ‘The Ball on a Stick Picture’ should contain (group 1):

  • Quadrature picture
  • Ball on a Stick picture

The chapter ‘Squeezing’ should contain (group 3):

  • Squeezed light injection
  • Frequency dependent squeezing

All the material can be found in the SURFdrive folder at this link

Date to hand in assignment: May 20th

Lecture 7: Sensing & control and/or future detectors


APPLICATIONS OF CLASSICAL PHYSICS, 2012-2013 Version of Textbook by Roger D. Blandford and Kip S. Thorne:

For copyrighted material we use a password protected link to Surfdrive

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