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# Simulation of detector and/or detecting material

## Software packages

RD51 simulation workshop: http://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=110634

### neBEM - nearly exact Boundary Element Method

Computes the electric field and potential in nearly arbitrary 3-dimensional geometries taking the presence of conductors and dielectric media into account: http://nebem.web.cern.ch/nebem/ Alternative to a Finite Element Method (FEM) tool like ANSYS where Poisson's equations can't be solved in a strict mathematical way.

### ANSYS

FEM calculation tool to e.g. calculate electric field maps.

### Garfield/Garfield++

http://garfield.web.cern.ch/garfield/ and http://garfieldpp.web.cern.ch/garfieldpp/

### Magboltz

Calculates gas properties: http://magboltz.web.cern.ch/magboltz/

### GEANT4

Simulates particle interactions in a detector (with custom geometry and materials): http://geant4.web.cern.ch/

### NEST - Noble Element Simulation Technique

Addition to GEANT4 to correct calculations on interactions in noble gases (also in liquid phase), especially at low energies: http://nest.physics.ucdavis.edu/site/

## Detector simulations in the R&D group

### Xenon and the XAMS setup

These simulations are done in GEANT4 to combine the information about the geometry of the cryostat, the Xe properties and the energy deposit of sources inside the detector volume.

#### Xenon detection properties

goals:
• path length between double scatters in lXe
• can GridPix resolve double scatters? (better: to what precision does it?)

Longterm goal: include NEST (see above) in calculations to account for correct division of deposited energy to scintillation and ionisation.

#### TPC construction for the XAMS setup

Build all vessels of the cryostat, pipes, and the inner (Xe-filled) test chamber in GEANT4:
• whole geometry consists of
• lXe volume
• inner cryostat walls incl. the Xe gas layer
• insulation volume
• outer cryostat walls
• world (outermost "frame" volume = the lab)
• modular implementation: single layers of the geometry can be added to the simulation, i.e. it's possible to just look at the lXe volume inside the world, or include the inner cryostat wall with the gas phase (without the rest outside).

In addition to the cryostat and the lXe test chamber the TPC has to be implemented. This requires:

• electric field
• PMT
• meshes
• field shapers
• reflectors (Teflon)

### GridPix

#### Electron transport in CO2/DME

-- RolfS - 2012-04-02

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Topic revision: r5 - 2013-04-02 - rolfs_40nikhef_2enl

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